The transport sector is responsible for 23% of total energy-related CO2 emissions, with 30% of that being attributable to freight. As international trade and domestic transport continue to grow, steps must be taken to reduce transport emissions while still providing for society’s mobility needs. The sector has three distinct modes of transport each with their own low carbon solutions. The need for new net zero technologies and infrastructure investment presents challenges and opportunities for businesses within this sector.


Aviation is responsible for 11% of CO2 emissions from transport and is the most difficult type of transport to decarbonise. Many zero-carbon solutions used in land or sea transport, such as batteries or hydrogen fuel, don’t translate well to meet today’s aviation needs.

Land Transport

Land transport is responsible for 72% of transport sector emissions, but will likely be the easiest mode of transport to transform to net zero. For light-road transport, Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) are already on the market.


Despite being the least carbon-intensive form of freight transport, the high frequency of global shipping means shipping emissions represent 11% of total transport emissions. A number of low-carbon shipping technologies are already being developed, including battery and  hydrogen-based ferries and ammonia retrofits.